TOHO INDIANS. The Toho (Thoo, Tohan, Tohau, Tojo, Tokau, Too, Tou, Toxo, Tuu) Indians are not to be confused with the Tohahas, although both lived in the same area and were often closely associated. It is generally thought that both were Tonkawan groups, but this cannot be proved conclusively. In the late seventeenth century the Tohos and Tohahas were most frequently encountered by the Spanish along the lower Guadalupe and Colorado rivers (but not on the coast), where they shared villages with other groups, particularly the Cantonas, Cavas, Emets, and Sanas. In 1740 some of the Tohos entered San Antonio de Valero Mission at San Antonio and were reported there as late as 1765. Attempts to link the Toho with the Atayos of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca are not very convincing because over 150 years separate the initial records of the two groups. Identification of Tohos with the Tohaus (Tohans, Tokaus) of the La Salle expedition records is generally accepted and is supported by the fact that both Tohau and Tohaha appear on the same list of localized groups. Herbert E. Bolton once called attention to the similarity of certain variants of Toho, particularly Tuu and Tou, to Tup and Top, two group names that have never been satisfactorily explained. Bolton's suggestion deserves serious attention and should be tested. Tojo [Toho] and Too have been listed as separate groups, but the literature shows that these are variants of the same name.
Image Use Disclaimer
All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Toho Indians," accessed February 23, 2017, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmt64.
Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.