TOYAL INDIANS. The Toyal (Tojal) Indians are known only from the narrative of François Simars de Bellisle, a Frenchman who was held in captivity by the Caux Indians (evidently the Akokisas) during the early eighteenth century. De Bellisle reported that his captors killed and ate a Toyal man somewhere west or northwest of Galveston Bay. Early writers linked the Toyals with the Sadamons, but the evidence for this was never made explicit. More recent writers have equated the Toyals with the Tohahas, who were reported in the same area. The Tohaha Indians are generally considered to have been of Tonkawan affiliation.
Henri Folmer, "De Bellisle on the Texas Coast," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 44 (October 1940). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). William W. Newcomb, The Indians of Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961).
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Toyal Indians," accessed February 13, 2016, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmt76.
Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
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