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TUEIENZUM INDIANS. The name Tueienzum is here used to replace several similar names that have long been considered to be names for separate and distinct Indian groups, namely, Jueinzum (a misreading of Tueinzum), Tonzaumacagua, Tumpzi, and Vitzummo. The first three of these names are evidently variants of a single ethnic name; the registers of San Antonio de Valero Mission of San Antonio record them for the same Indian individual, an adult female who is identifiable in five register entries between the years 1725 and 1730. She was the only Tueienzum recorded at the mission. The fourth name, Vitzummo, refers to an Indian group seen in 1717 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis on the Brazos River in the vicinity of present Milam and Robertson counties. These Vitzummo Indians were sharing the same foraging territory with remnants of three other groups: Ervipiames, Muruams, and Xarames, all of whom were later represented in considerable numbers at San Antonio de Valero Mission. It is known that the Ervipiame, Muruam, and Xarame Indians were not native to the area in which they were seen by St. Denis in 1717; they had migrated from areas farther to the south and southwest. As no documents indicate that the Vitzummos were migrants, they may have been native to the eastern part of Central Texas. The names Tueienzum (Spanish rendition) and Vitzummo (French rendition) are here equated because of sound correspondences and because some of the Ervipiame, Muruam, and Xarame individuals at San Antonio de Valero Mission can be identified as having come to the mission from the same Brazos River area in which the Vitzummo were seen in 1717. As no linguistic information was ever recorded for the Tueienzum Indians, the language they spoke remains unknown. J. R. Swanton's early speculation that the names Jueinzum, Tonzaumacagua, and Tumpzi refer to three different Indian groups who may have spoken the Coahuilteco language now appears to be unreasonable.

Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). San Antonio de Valero Mission, Baptismal and Burial Registers, San Antonio. C. C. Shelby, "St. Denis's Declaration Concerning Texas in 1717," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 26 (January 1923). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).
Thomas N. Campbell

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Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Tueienzum Indians," accessed September 24, 2017,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.