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URACHA INDIANS. This name is known only from a single entry (1764) in the baptismal records at San Antonio de Valero Mission in San Antonio. It may refer to the Orancho Indians, who were mentioned by Juan Domínguez de Mendoza in 1684 as one of the Indian groups he was expecting to arrive at San Clemente, a temporary mission established on the Colorado River east of present San Angelo. No clues have yet been found to the linguistic and cultural affiliations of either group. J. R. Swanton listed Urachas as speaking a Coahuiltecan language, but he presented no evidence in support of this identification. The available evidence suggests occupation somewhere between San Antonio and the Pecos River.


Herbert Eugene Bolton, ed., Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706 (New York: Scribner, 1908; rpt., New York: Barnes and Noble, 1959). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "URACHA INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 28, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.