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NORTH CADDO VILLAGE

NORTH CADDO VILLAGE. The North Caddo village was one of four Caddo (Kadohadacho) villages known to have existed in eastern Harrison County in the late 1830s (see also the MIDDLE CADDO, BIG SPRING CADDO and DEHAHUIT’S CADDO villages). Early Republic of Texas maps in the General Land Office indicate that the settlement was situated in Harrison County approximately nine miles northeast of Marshall on State Highway 43. In the early 1800s the primary north-south route in this area was the Caddo Trail—an Indian path that crossed the Sabine River at (1830s) Ramsdale’s Ferry, then ran north through the North Caddo village and crossed Big Cypress Bayou between Haggerty’s Bayou and (late 1830s) Port Caddo. Skirting the Caddo (Ferry) Lake bottomlands north of Port Caddo, the trail passed west of the Jim’s Bayou arm of the lake at which point the route turned east crossing the Red River just above the Caddo-Coushatta village at Cedar Bluff. In later years the North Caddo village became an area transportation hub of sorts. Trammel’s Trace entered the village from the northwest before turning southwest to follow the Caddo Trail to the Sabine. The Natchitoches-to-Pecan Point Road entered the village from the southeast and continued northwest along Trammel’s Trace.
In an 1835 survey, the settlement was referenced as the “upper Caddo village,” an indication that this site was the northernmost Caddo settlement in the region. The village was referenced by name at least fourteen times on early 1838 Republic surveys, suggesting the importance of the site as a local landmark. While there is no evidence of precisely when the settlement was first established, the fact Trammel’s Trace deviated eastward from its generally north-south route to include the village is probably an indication that the settlement predated the mid-1810s trace. As was the case with all eastern Harrison County Caddo villages, the village was abandoned during the winter of 1837–38 due to conflict with local settlers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Harrison County, 1840, Richard Hooper, Surveyor, Document 1515, Colony and District Collection, Texas General Land Office, Austin. Josiah Prewitt, Shelby County, First Class, File 000108, Original Land Grant Collection, Texas General Land Office, Austin. F. Todd Smith, The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542–1854 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1995). Jim Tiller, Before the Line, Volume III: Caddo Indians: The Final Years (2013), Electronic version available at Newton Gresham Library, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville. 

Jim Tiller

Citation

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Jim Tiller, "NORTH CADDO VILLAGE," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bpn04), accessed April 18, 2014. Uploaded on September 26, 2013. Modified on October 7, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.