QUIVIRA. Quivira (Cuivira, Quebira, Aguivira) was the legendary Indian province first mentioned to Hernando de Alvarado and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado in the fall of 1540 by the Pawnee captive El Turco. According to the Turk's stories, Quivira lay far to the east of the New Mexico pueblos somewhere on the Buffalo Plains. The region was said to contain a large population with much gold and silver. However, when the Spaniards reached the supposed site of Quivira in 1541, they found only villages of grass huts and a partly agricultural, partly bison-hunting economy. El Turco, after confessing that he had told his stories to lure the conquistadors away from the pueblos, was garroted. Nevertheless, the legend of Quivira remained strong; the unsuccessful expedition of Francisco Leyva de Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez de Humaña in 1595 and that of Juan de Oñate in 1601 also visited Quivira, with the same disappointing results. Fray Juan de Padilla, who had accompanied the Coronado expedition, was martyred there after attempting to establish mission work among the Indians of Quivira.
Quivira has been identified with the Indians later known as Wichita. Frederick Webb Hodge stated that the name was possibly a Spanish corruption of the term Kidikwius, or Kirikurus, the Wichitas' name for themselves, or of Kirikuruks, the Pawnee name for the Wichitas. The actual location of Quivira has been a source of controversy and speculation among historians, ethnologists, and archeologists alike. Some, like Carlos E. Castañeda and David Donoghue, conclude from Spanish journals that Coronado and Oñate never went beyond the Panhandle of Texas or that of Oklahoma; they thus place the Indian villages above the South Canadian River in what is Hutchinson or Roberts County, or above the North Canadian (Beaver) River, in what is now Beaver County, Oklahoma. However, archeological evidence more readily points toward Hodge's conclusion that the fabled provincia was actually located north of the Arkansas River, somewhere between present Great Bend and Wichita, Kansas. Prominent Borderlands historians Herbert Eugene Bolton, George P. Hammond, and Agapito Rey also demonstrate the plausibility of the Kansas location in their writings.
Image Use Disclaimer
All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Margery H. Krieger, "Quivira," accessed September 25, 2016, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bpq02.
Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.