TRAMMELL CROW COMPANY
TRAMMELL CROW COMPANY. Trammell Crow Company is a commercial real estate services company with headquarters in Dallas and offices in seventy major United States cities. Other Crow family investments have included Wyndham Hotels, Trammell Crow Farms, Trammell Crow Residential, and Trammell Crow International, with operations in eight foreign countries. The firm was founded by Trammell Crow, a Dallas native, who began as an accountant, learned management techniques in the United States Navy, and formed important contacts at a Dallas bank before entering the business. His first effort was to find tenants for a vacant warehouse belonging to the grain wholesaling firm of his wife's family. When one of the tenants, battery manufacturer Ray-O-Vac, outgrew the space in 1948, Crow bought land and built a new warehouse for the firm, the first of a long line of warehouse and display buildings. His most valuable early experience in building came from designing and building a grain elevator at Texline. Benefitting from a postwar boom that made Dallas a regional business center, Crow and his early partners, John and Storey Stemmons, built more than fifty warehouses in Dallas. Crow pioneered the idea of "building on speculation" and used short lease arrangements that permitted him to raise rents over time, but was noted most for forming partnerships to complete his projects rather than a conventional corporate organization. He is considered the nation's largest non-government developer. After the Dallas Decorative Center in 1955, Crow went on to build the Dallas Market Center on the Trinity River, the Dallas Homefurnishing Mart in 1957, the Trade Mart with its distinctive atrium in 1960, and later the Infomart. He also completed Market Hall, the country's largest privately owned exhibition facility, and numerous Wyndham hotels, shopping malls, and office-residence complexes. Outside Texas, Crow built San Francisco's Embarcadero Center and Atlanta's Peachtree Center. When John Stemmons balked at plans for the World Trade Center at Market Center, Crow bought out his interest.
By 1975, though his personal net worth totalled $70 million and his network comprised 604 partnerships, Crow's enterprises had begun to suffer from high interest rates, mounting debt, and a glut of office buildings and other real estate on the market. Crow was forced to sell off properties but continued to develop many projects simultaneously. In 1977 he reorganized the company and became president. He later diversified into investment banking and property management. By 1984, when he completed Dallas's first post-modern skyscraper, the fifty-story Trammell Crow Center, the company had assets of $13 billion and employed 5,000 people. Problems in the Southwestern real estate market in the 1980s forced Crow to centralize operations and lose many of his commercial real estate partners in the process. Moving away from income-generating properties, the firm also spun off its property ownership into a separate operating company known as Trammell Crow Asset Management. Major projects in the 1980s included the Dallas Communications Complex, a series of movie sound studios planned to make suburban Las Colinas into a new Texas Hollywood, but continuing problems forced Crow to refinance 150 properties in 1990 and close regional offices thereafter. In 1991 the firm's commercial partnership interests were formed into a private corporation. At that time Trammell Crow Company, the commercial entity, employed 2,700 workers, trained at a company-run university, and had sales of $1,186 million. By 1992, with 286 million square feet under management, company partnerships controlled 6,500 properties worth $9 billion, and the firm had 2.8 million square feet under development. The company was the nation's largest real estate services firm providing property management, facilities management, construction/development, asset management, brokerage, and leasing/marketing services.
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Diana J. Kleiner, "Trammell Crow Company," accessed July 30, 2016, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/dst03.
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