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GALVESTON CROAKER. The Croaker, a short-lived Galveston newspaper, appeared in a few issues in 1842, according to Allen Charles Gray. Its title may have indicated the unrest in Texas politics from conflict over Mexican policy and replacement of Austin as the capital by Houston (see AUSTIN, TEXAS).


John Melton Wallace, Gaceta to Gazette: A Checklist of Texas Newspapers, 1813–1846 (Austin: University of Texas Department of Journalism, 1966). Dudley Goodall Wooten, ed., A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., Dallas: Scarff, 1898; rpt., Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1986).


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

"GALVESTON CROAKER," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed August 27, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.