LOZANO, IGNACIO E.
LOZANO, IGNACIO E. (1886–1953). Ignacio E. Lozano, editor of Spanish-language newspapers, was born in 1886 in Marín, Nuevo León, Mexico. He moved to Texas in 1908, at a time when thousands of Mexicans were crossing the border into the United States. Subsequently, the Mexican Revolution prompted an even larger exodus. In San Antonio Lozano established a Spanish-language bookstore. He also worked with publisher and political exile Adolfo D. Salinas on two Spanish-language periodicals, La Revista Mensual and El Noticiero. Later, Lozano briefly managed and edited the Spanish-language daily El Imparcial de Texas, owned by Francisco A. Chapa.
In 1913 Lozano launched La Prensa, a Spanish-language periodical. At the time there were some 400 such periodicals in the United States. La Prensa's readership included political refugees of all classes from Mexico. The newspaper primarily reported on political developments in Mexico and accused the administration of President Plutarco E. Calles of excesses. Consequently, the paper was often censored in Mexico. Lozano had intended to return to Mexico to aid in the transformation of that country, but stayed to make La Prensa an outstanding Spanish-language daily. By 1926 the newspaper was attracting such writers as José Vasconcelos and Nemesio García Naranjo and employed direct correspondents in Paris, Mexico City, and Washington. In April 1926 Lozano started another successful Spanish-language daily in Los Angeles, La Opinión. He eventually moved to California. Both Lozano newspapers criticized Mexican policies and atrocities during the 1920s and 1930s. Copies of the two periodicals circulated surreptitiously, and Lozano's editorials were reprinted by his publishing house, Casa Editorial Lozano.
In March 1928 the Congress of the Latin Press, meeting in Havana, Cuba, recognized Lozano for his efforts in opposing Calles. He was also honored for his civic accomplishments by the political and civic leaders of San Antonio in February 1953, the fortieth anniversary of La Prensa. On September 21, 1953, he died of cancer. His widow, Alicia E. Lozano, and his longtime business manager, Leonides Gonzales, continued publishing La Prensa for ten years. Its circulation declined as Spanish-language readership dwindled. The last issue of La Prensa (by then a bilingual tabloid) was printed on January 31, 1963. La Opinión continued to serve the Spanish-speaking populace of California and the Southwest.
Lupe Castillo and Hermino Rios, "Toward a True Chicano Bibliography: Mexican American Newspapers, 1848–1942," El Grito 3 (Summer 1970). Onofre di Stefano, "`Venimos a luchar': A Brief History of La Prensa's Founding," Aztlán 16 (1985). Richard Amado García, The Making of the Mexican-American Mind, San Antonio, Texas, 1929–1941 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Irvine, 1980). La Prensa (San Antonio), February 13, 1938. San Antonio Express, September 23, 1953.