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ARROYO PRIMERO. Arroyo Primero rises in southeastern Presidio County one mile east of Panther Spring (at 29°23' N, 103°56' W) and runs six miles southeast to its mouth on Fresno Creek, two miles southwest of Chimney Rock (at 29°22' N, 103°51' W). The surrounding desert mountain terrain of volcanic rock is surfaced by sands, clay loam, and rough stone. Sparse grasses, cacti, and desert shrubs grow there.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

"ARROYO PRIMERO," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 27, 2015. Uploaded on June 9, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.